c. 1995-1997


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age (ah-gay): rising

age empi uchi (ah-gay M-P oo-chee): rising elbow strike

age uke (ah-gay oo-kay): rising or up block

ai (eye): to concentrate

aikido (eye-key-doh): a Japanese martial art which uses an opponent’s momentum against himself

ainuke (eye-new-kay): simultaneous strikes with simultaneous blocks or avoidance; endless missing of techniques

aiuchi (eye-uu-chee): simultaneous strikes; mutual slaying (see ainuke)

aiumi (eye-yume-me): a step or pace

aiumiashi (eye-yume-me-ah-she): the normal stepping forward or backward done in a crescent-shaped manner

Amaterasu (ah-mah-tear-ah-sue): the legendary sun goddess who founded Japan and gave birth to the royal line still holding the office in Japan

Aoinagi (ah-oh-ee-naw-ghee): the name of our system; the name means “green willow tree.” It may also be written Aoyagi, Aoinage or Seiryu (believe it or not). Aoi (Sei): = Green; Nagi, Yagi, Ryu = willow or willow tree

arigato (ah-rhee-gah-toe): thank you (semi polite)

ashi (ah-she): foot or leg

ashi barai (ah-she bah-rye): foot sweeps

ashiwaza (ah-she-wah-zah): foot techniques; in judo these are foot sweeps, etc; in karate these are ways of moving and turning using the feet

ategeiko (ah-teh-gay-ko): striking practice; a training method where one person continuously strikes at the other in rapid succession of techniques

atemi waza (ah-tem-ee wah-zah): techniques for striking vital targets

ato (ah-toe): backwards, usually used in a command to move backwards using a technique instead of forward using the technique (compare to mae)

ato no saki: see go no sen

awase uke (ah-wah-say): a block with the wrists “tied” together



banzai (bahn-zai): many lives!, hurrah!, charge!

barai (bar-eye): sweeping

bo (boh): a six foot long fighting stick; also called kon, rokushakubo

Bodhidharma (boh-hid-dar-mah): daruma, to-ma, ma-to, the 28 patriarch of buddhism and the patriarch of zen buddhism that took Dhyana (Chan, Zen): teachings from India to China in 520 AD. He is the legendary founder of Shaolin wushu from which karate developed nearly a thousand years later

bojutsu (boh-jew-tzoo): art of using the staff

bokken (boh-ken): wooden sword

bu (boo): military, martial

Bubishi (boo-bee-she): Chinese book (wu pei chih): on military tactics discussed by the famous karate masters Miyagi Chojun, Higashionna Kanryo and Mabuni Kenwa

budo (boo-doe): the martial way of life (“do” denotes self-development as opposed to “jutsu” which denotes technical proficiency in combat alone):

budo jiten (gee-ten): a budo dictionary (you are looking at one now):

bugei (boo-gay): old style martial arts (pre 1600s)

bujutsu (boo-jew-tzoo): martial combat techniques

buke (boo-kay): samurai family (See kuge)

bunkai (bune-ka-ee): the application of the movements of kata against an opponent sometimes done as a competition in tournaments

busen (boo-sen): military college

bushi (boo-she): a warrior; lit. war-person; see shugyosha, samurai

bushido (boo-she-dough): the way of the warrior; a code of ethics and etiquette that guides the martial artist in his/her effort to lead a respectable life

Butokukai (boo-toh-ku-ka-ee): the Japanese martial arts organization; lit. military virtue organization (See Dai Nippon Butokukai, Zen Bei Butokukai)

butokuden (boo-toh-ku-den): headquarters of the Dai Nippon Butokukai



Chatan Yara (cha-tawn yah-rah): a famous Okinawan karate master of the 17th century

chi (chee): the breath, vital force or spirit (ki, prana)

chi kung (chee-gung): chinese art of internal energy

Chito Ryu (chee-toe rue): style of karate founded by Dr. Chitose

chotto (cho-toe): just a minute, wait; a more polite way is “chotto matte kudasai

chotto matte kudasai (mah-tay koo-dah-sa-ee): one moment please

chu (chew): middle

chui (chew-ee): a warning given at a tournament for breaking a rule (see hansoku)

ch’uan (chew-ahn): fist or boxing

Ch’uan fa (chew-ahn-fah): way of the fist, Chinese precursor of karate

chudan (chew-dawn): middle (as in the level of a punch)

chudan gamae: middle guard position



dachi (dah-chee): stances
     fudo dachi: immovable stance
     gyaku zenkutsu dachi: reverse front stance
     hangetsu dachi: half-moon stance (used in Seisan kata)
     heiko dachi: parallel feet shoulder stance
     heisoku dachi: feet together
     kiba dachi: horse stance
     kokutsu dachi: back stance
     metsubi dachi: like heisoku dachi only toes apart
     nekoashi dachi: cat (foot) stance
     neo dachi: gyaku zenkutsu dachi
     sagiashi dachi: crane stance
     sanchin dachi: hourglass stance, triple pressure stance
     sochin dachi: fighting stance
     soto hachiji dachi: toes out shoulder stance
     shiko dachi: straddle stance
     uchi hachiji dachi: toes in shoulder stance
     zenkutsu dachi: front stance

daimyo (dah-me-yo): a landed overlord in feudal Japan

damashi (dah-mah-she): raw fighting spirit

dai (die): large, larger, greater

Dai Nippon Butokukai (die-knee-pone boo-tok-ku-ka-ee): The Greater Japanese Military Virtue Organization

daisho (die-show): a pair (big and small); a pair of swords

daito (die-toe): sword, wooden sword, katana

Daito Ryu (die-toe rue): a style of armed and unarmed martial arts dating from the Heian period in Japanese history. It was founded by Minamoto Yoshimitsu who passed it down through 16 generations of the Takeda family to Yoshida Kotaro and through him to Sensei Richard Kim.

dan (dahn): a step (on a flight of stairs): a level or grade or degree (of black belt)

Daruma (dahr-uum-ah): see bodhidharma

deshi (deh-she): disciple, student

do (doe): torso, waist, chest protector in kendo

do (doe): the way; art practiced as a way of life (Chinese = Tao)

Dogen (doe-ghen): the founder of Soto Zen in 1228

dojo (dough-joe): the training hall, place-of-the-way

dojo kun (dough-joe koon): dojo precepts

domo (doe-moe): thanks, sorry; this is a familiar form of thank you; for comparison see arigato

domo arigato (ah-rhee-gah-toe): thank you very much; this is a very polite form of thank you

domo arigato gozaimasu (goh-zah-ee-mah-su): this is an extremely polite form of thank you very much for what you have done

dozo (doe-zoh): please, do this



embu (M-boo): a prearranged 45-65 second skit for competition

embusen (M-boo-sen): the line of force between opponents; the performance line of a kata

Empi (M-pee): “Flying Swallow” kata

empi uchi (M-pee oo-chee): elbow strikes (see hiji ate): there are five; age, yoko, mawashi, ura, otoshi

empi uke: elbow block

en (N): circle

en uke: circle block, also known as cho uke

escrima (es-cree-mah): a Philippine weapon system where two short sticks are used (see kali)



fudo (fuu-doh): immovable

fudo dachi: immovable stance; stance used by sumo wrestlers similar to a shiko dachi with toes turned all the way out

fudo myo (fuu-doh me-yoh): a buddhist divinity of immovability and fire

fudo shin: immovable mind

fuji san: famous Mount Fuji in Japan

fuko gamae (foo-ko ga-mah-ee): a stance with one knee on the ground

fumikomi geri (foo-mee-koh-mee): stomping type kicks (mae, ushiro, uchi, soto)

Funakoshi Gichin (1867-1957): a famous Okinawan karate master for whom Shotokan karate is named (Shoto was his martial arts name)



gaijin (gah-ee-gene): a foreigner in Japan

gakko (gah-ko): school

Gankaku (gahn-kaw-koo): kata formerly known as Chinto; it means “Crane Standing on a Rock”; lit. Crane Rock

gassho (gah-show): bow or salutation done with hands together in prayer position

gasshuku (ga-shoe-koo): extracurricular training outside the dojo

gedan (gay-dawn): lower as in a punch to the lower abdomen

gedan barai (bah-rye): low sweeping

gedan kamae (kah-my): low guard position

gedan morote uke (moh-roh-teh): low reinforced block

gedan tsuki (tzoo-key): low punch; also pronounced gadanzuki

gedan ude uke (uu-day): low forearm block

geri (gehr-rhee): kicking technique, kick (see keri)

getsu (geht-tzoo): the moon

gi (ghee): the uniform of karate training

giri (ghee-ree): obligation, duty

go (go): five; hard

godan: a fifth degree black belt; the fifth in a series

Goju Ryu (goh-jew rue): one of four styles of karate; this style was created by Miyagi Chojun

Gojushiho (goh-jew-she-hoe): 54, an advanced gyo kata

gokyu (goh-key-uu): first green belt; 5th kyu

gomen nasai (goh-men-nah-sah-ee): excuse me

go no sen: a developmental martial skill which means after-comes-before; also called “ato no saki”; as your opponent begins his attack you catch him off guard and strike him first

Go Rin No Sho”: Miyamoto Mushashi’s “Book of Five Rings”, written in the last weeks of his life in 1645 while he lived in a cave; it is a book of strategy

Goshinjitsu (goh-shin-jit-t’sue): a style of karate; lit. self defense

guruma (goo-rue-mah): wheel

guruma geri: wheel kick

gyaku (ghee-ya-ku): reverse, usually referring to a body position

gyaku mikazuki geri (me-kah-zoo-key): reverse crescent kick

gyaku shuto (ghee-ah-koo shu-toe): reverse chop

gyaku zenkutsu dachi (zen-koo-tzoo): reverse front stance

gyakuzuki (gyaku tsuki): (ghee-ya-ku-zoo-key): reverse punch (left hand when right foot forward)

gyo (ghee-yoh): training; the first license in the menkyo system

gyosha (ghee-yoh-shaw): a trainee



ha (hah): leaf, branch, often used to signify a branch of an organization, i.e., Aoinagi-ha

hachi (ha-chee): eight

hachi maki (mah-key): headband; worn mostly by Goju-ryu practitioners; signifies the student is ready to work hard

hachidan (ha-chee-dahn): eighth degree black belt; eighth in a series

hachikyu (ha-chee-key-uu): high blue belt; 8th kyu

Hachiman (ha-chee-mahn): The shinto religion’s god of War

Hagakure (ha-gah-kur-re): a book of stories and lessons about ancient martial arts training

hai (ha’yee): yes, correct

Haiku (ha-ee-ku): a form of Japanese poetry 3 lines of 5-7-5 syllables often used in samurai life

haishu (ha-ee-shoe): back of the hand

haishu uchi: back of the hand strike

haishu uke: back of the hand block while the hand is open

haito (ha-ee-toe): ridge hand

hajime (ha-gee-meh): a command to begin

hakama (haw-kaw-maw): culottes worn at times, it’s like a baggy pair of pants which look like a skirt

han (hahn): half

Hangetsu (hahn-geht-tzoo): A kata meaning Half-Moon; same kata as Seisan

hangetsu dachi: half-moon stance (used in Seisan kata); is like a wide sanchin dachi

hanshi (hahn-she): master instructor, honorary title given at or after hachidan

hanshi dai: the heir apparent of a school; headmaster of a school (ryu)

hansoku (hahn-so-koo): a violation or foul; usually indicates expulsion from a match at a

hantei (hahn-tay): a judge or his judgment at a tournament

hara (hah-rah): the belly or abdomen

hasami (hah-sah-me): scissors

hashi (hah-she): chopsticks

hasso gamae (hah-sew gah-my): holding a weapon up by one’s shoulder

Heian (hay-ahn): Heian Kata is Pinan Kata; Japanese name for Okinawan word Pinan; means Peaceful-Peaceful; an era of early Japanese history

heiho (heh-hoe): strategy

heiko dachi (heh-koe): shoulder stance with the feet parallel

heiko tsuki: parallel punch with both hands simultaneously

heisoku dachi (heh-soh-ku): a stance like standing at attention with the toes/feet together

henka (hen-kah): change

Henshuho (hen-shoe-hoe): a specific set of 22 prearranged defenses usually performed with an opponent

hidari (hee-dar-ee): left (as opposed to right)

Higashionna Kanryo: Okinawan karate master of Naha-te karate

hiji ate (hee-gee ah-tay): another way to say empi uchi (elbow strikes):

hiraken (here-ah-ken): back fist technique (see uraken)

Hito kata san nen”: “One kata-three years” A saying made famous by Funakoshi Gichin; branch of the style Shito-ryu

Hirakiashi (here-ah-key-ah-she): side stepping

hiza (he-zah): knee

hiza geri (hee-zah): knee kick

hombu (home-boo): headquarters of an organization, school

hyaku (hee-yah-koo): hundred; fast; indicates the benefit of training a long time on one kata tournament (see chui)

hyaku hachi: 108; the name of an advanced kata; also known as peichurin, suparumpei



iai (ee-eye): literally, to exist together usually connoting the existence of a bushi and his sword

iaido (ee-eye-doh): the art or way of drawing the sword

ichi (ee-chee): one

ichiban (ee-chee-bahn): the best, number one

I-ching (ee-ching): The Book of Changes; an ancient chinese classic of numerology; attributed to Kung-fu-tsu (Confucius) by some people but this is improbable

“ichi-go, ichi-e”: a dojo maxim that teaches every time is the only time, every time is the last time; do your best now

Iie (ee-ee-eh): no

ikebana (ee-kay-bahn-ah): the art of flower arranging

ikkajo (ee-kah-joe): the first technique of daito ryu

ikkyu (ee-key-uu): the highest mudansha grade; a high brown belt; 1st kyu

inyo (eeN-yo): contrast especially in art, such as fast and slow are contrast in the art of karate; the active and receptive principles of nature symbolized by Yin-Yang ideology

ippon (ee-pone): one; one point given in a tournament for a very good technique

ippon ken: one raised-knuckle strike

ippon kumite (koo-me-teh): one step sparring

ippon seioinge: one arm over the shoulder throw in judo techniques

ippon shobu (show-boo): one point match

isshin (ee-she-N): oneness of concentration, un-disturbed attention; lit. one heart

Isshin Ryu: style of karate founded by Shimabuku Tatsuo

Itadakimasu (ee-tah-dah-key-mass): I humbly accept; a statement made by the head of the table at supper before eating any food

Itosu Yasutsune: karate master (d 1915); taught Mabuni Kenwa, Funakoshi Gichen and others

Iwa no mi (ee-wah no me): a body like a rock, physically powerful and undefeatable



jigotai (gee-goh-tah-ee): a resistance or strongly defensive stance usually used in judo shiai especially by beginners

jitsu (gee-tsu [like chew with ts sound]): calm concentration

jiten (gee-ten): dictionary

jo (joe): a four foot long fighting stick

jodan (joe-dawn): high (in direction), upward

jodan uke (joe-dawn ou-key): up block

ju (jew): ten; soft or gentle

judo: an olympic sport of throwing and mat work, lit. gentle way

jukyu (jew-key-uu): orange belt; 10th kyu

juikkyu (jew-ee-key-uu): white belt; 11th kyu but usually not considered a kyu at all

jutsu (jew-tzoo): technique or techniques



kiba dachi: horse stance

kokutsu dachi: back stance

kabuto (kah-boo-toe): helmet

kachi (kah-chee): winner, victory

kagato (kaw-gaw-toe): heel of the foot

kagato geri: heel kick, back kick (see ushiro geri)

kage tsuki (kah-gay): cross body punch

kai (kah’ii): organization, i.e., butoku kai; an oar as used on small boats which are sometimes used as makeshift weapons

kaiden (ka’ee-den): the deep intuitive secrets of a master which are learned only by years of experience, and can only be taught by similar experience

kakare geiko (kah-kar-eh gay-ko): lit. cutting practice (see ategeiko)

kakete (kah-keh-teh): a hook or trapping block

kakete uke nagashi (nah-gah-she): a hooking sweep block as in Henshuho 20

kakiwake uke (kah-key-wah-kay): separation block where both hands pry an opponent’s grip loose as he grabs your shoulders

kakuto uke (kah-koo-toe): bent wrist or chicken-head block

kali (kah-lee): a Philippine fighting system which uses two short sticks called escrima

kama (kah-mah): a weapon like a sickle usually used in pairs

kamae (kah-mah-ee): any position for fighting

kamaete (kah-mah-ee-teh): a command to assume a fighting position

kami (kah-mee): God, gods, divine, spirit

kamikaze (kah-me-kah-zeh): divine wind (named from a typhoon that destroyed the Mongol invasion in 1284); a Japanese suicide pilot in the Second World War

kan (kahn): intuition, intuitive part of life; having had so much experience that one can flow through a situation acting on deeply learned lessons and a minimum of thinking. As an example, a well-practiced automobile driver applies the brakes without any thought immediately as he/she sees a child run in front of the car. A well-trained martial artist while on the street applies a block without any thought as he/she is attacked.

Kanku (kahn-kuu): the name of a kata which we usually call Kosokun or even Kushanku. The meaning of the name varies but Kanku means “To View the Sky”

Kano Jigoro (kahn-no gee-gore-oh): founder of modern judo

kansetsu waza (kahn-set-tzoo-wah-zah): joint locking techniques

kansetsu geri: kick against a joint

karate (kah-rah-teh, note that the Japanese do not say kah-rah-tea): Okinawan/Japanese empty hand martial art, derived from the ancient tode of Okinawa

karate ka: practitioner of karate

“karate ni sente nashi”: a philosophical tenet that there is no advantage in the first strike in a fight

kashi (kah-she): oak or oak tree

kata (kaw-taw): prearranged art forms of karate designed to train karateka mentally and physically for life and death battles; the shoulder of the body

katana (kah-tan-ah): a long samurai sword

kawa (kah-wah): river

kawa no kokoro (kah-wah no koh-koh-roe): a mind like the river, ever flowing onward; continuity; un-stoppable

kaze (kah-zeh): wind

keagi (kay-ah-ghee): snapping kicks (see kekomi)

keiko (kay-ee-ko): practice, usually a set of techniques done with a partner

kekomi (kay-ko-me): thrusting type kicks (see keagi)

kendo (ken-doh): Japanese sport of swordsmanship

kenpo (ken-poe): fist method, the Japanese pronunciation of chuan fa

kensei (ken-say): the name of a kata; sword-life; fist-life

kensho (ken-show): sudden enlightenment

keri waza (kay-rhee wah-zah): kicking techniques

ki (key): internal spirit, life-force, breath

kiai (key-eye): the yell of karate; lit. to concentrate spirit; a shout delivered for the purpose of focusing all of one’s energy into a single moment; a manifestation of ki (simultaneous union of spirit and expression of physical strength); integration of mind, body, spirit into one integral unit

kiba dachi (key-bah): male horse-riding stance, horse stance (feet straight forward)

kihon (key-hone): the basics of karate

Kim, Sensei Richard: the chief instructor and head of all the Zen Bei Butokukai schools and Aoinagi dojo

kime (key-may): focus (of a strike on a target); moment of impact where the summation of all physical and mental forces occurs

kimochi (key-moh-chee): feeling; lit. to have spirit; the use of emotional expression, usually in kata, to deliver ki.

kimono (key-moh-noh): Japanese robe

kin geri: a kick to the groin

kiri (key-ree): to cut

kobudo (koe-boo-doh): the ancient Okinawan weapons such as the bo, sai, tonfa, nunchaku

kohai (koe-high): a person who has been training a shorter time than you; younger brother, younger sister (see sempai)

koko (koh-koh): tiger mouth, a throat strike hitting with the web between the thumb and the index finger

kokoro (koe-koe-roe): spirit, heart, mind (see shin)

kokyu (ko-key’uu): the breath

kon (kone): another word for bo or fighting stick

konban wa (kone-bahn wah): good evening/night

konnichi wa (kone-ni-chee wah): good morning, good day

kosa dachi (koh-sah): cross-leg stance (kusure=female horse riding stance)

koshi (koh-she): hips

kote (koh-teh): wrist

kote gaeshi (gah-eh-she): a wrist lock and throw

ku: nine

kudan (kuu-dan): a 9th dan (also kyudan)

kuge (koo-gay): aristocratic family in ancient Japan (See buke):

kukyu (koo-key’uu): first blue belt (9th kyu):

kumade (ku-mah-day): bear claw strike (with the palm of the hand fingers bent inward)

kumite (ku-me-teh): sparring, lit. mixing of hands

kung-fu: a termed used for Chinese martial arts by Americans. The more proper term is wushu

kuro (kuu-roe): black

kuro obi: black belt

kusure (koo-sue-reh): a variation from normal

kusurikama (ku-sue-rhee-kah-mah): a weapon best described as a chain and sickle

kuzushi (ku-zoo-she): to set up a momentum when beginning a throw of your opponent, to break the balance of an opponent in a throwing technique

Kwannon (ku’wa-nohn): the oriental legendary goddess of mercy

Kyan Chotoku (key-ahn cho-toe-ku): Shorin ryu master and student of Matsumura and Itosu

Kyokushinkai (key-oh-ku-shin-ka’ee): Oyama Masutatsu’s karate organization

kyoo (key-yo): confusion as opposed to jitsu (calm concentration)

kyoshi (key-yo-she): honorary title given at about the 7th dan or above level depending on contributions to the art

kyu (key-you): an under black belt (mudansha): grade

kyucho: the senior mudansha in a dojo

kyudan (key’uu-dahn): ninth degree black belt

kyudo: the Japanese art of archery



ma ai (mah-eye): critical distance

Mabuni Kenwa (mah-boo-knee ken-wah): founder of Shito Ryu karate

mae (mah-ee): front; correct distance

mae geri: front kick

mae keagi geri: front snap kick

mae kekomi geri: front thrust kick

mae tobi geri (toe-be): flying front kick

makikomi (mah-key-ko-me): a wrapping, to wrap; a throw in judo and aikido

makiwara (mah-key-wa-rah): a training device as a pole in the ground with a straw striking surface

mato (mah-toe): target

mato uke: target block

Matsumura Sokon (mah-tsu-mur-ra): karate master in Shuri, Okinawa; founder of Shorin Ryu and developer of the Gojushiho system

mawashi (mah-wah-she): a rotation, round, roundhouse

mawashi empi uchi (mah-wah-she): round elbow strike

mawashi geri: roundhouse kick

mawashi kagato geri (kah-gah-toe): spinning back kick

mawashi ushiro geri (ou-shee-roe): spinning back kick

mawatte (mah-wah-tay): a command to turn around

meijin (meh-gene): one who has achieved self mastery in an art beyond physical prowess

men: face or head; to strike to the head; head protector padding

menkyo (men-key-yo): license; a series of training licenses leading towards mastership in martial arts (see gyo, shugyo, sensei, sozosha, shihan)

menkyo kaiden (ka-ee-den): a license usually given only once in a sensei’s lifetime indicating that a student has learned the major secrets of the sensei

metsubi dachi (met-tzoo-be): natural stance used when bowing

metsubi dachi: like heisoku dachi only toes apart

michi (me-chee): road, path, way (see do)

migi (me-ghee): right (as opposed to left)

mikazuki (me-kah-zoo-key): crescent moon, lit. half-moon

mikazuki geri (me-kah-zoo-key geh-rhee): crescent kick, lit. half-moon kick

Miyagi Chojun (me-yah-ghee): founder of Goju Ryu Karate

Miyaji, James (me-yah-ji): Botokukai Sensei in Waipahu, Hawaii

Miyamoto Musashi (me-yah-mo-toe moo-saw-she): master swordsman and samurai in the 17th century; writer of the Go Rin No Sho (Book of Five Rings)

mizu (me-zoo): water

mizu no kokoro: a mind like water, a mental state where the mind is like the surface of a calm body of water-absorbing everything-reflecting everything-attached to nothing

moichido (moh-e-chee-dough): lit. one more time; please do it again

mokuso (mo-ku-sew): meditation

mon (mone, rhyme with bone): family crest (symbol): of the samurai

morote (moh-roh-tay): with both hands

morote tsuki: simultaneous two handed punch to face and groin

morote uke: a reinforced block

moto no ichi: a command to return to your original position during a karate match

mudansha (moo-dawn-shaw): a karate training person who has not yet attained a black belt or shodan

mushin (moo-she-n): mind unencumbered by thought; mind of no-mind

muzukashi (moo-zoo-ka-she): difficult, “this is difficult”

myo (me-yoh): mystery, mysterious



nagashi (nah-gah-she): sweep, sweeping, flow

nagashi uke: sweeping block

nagashi uke kakete (kah-keh-teh): sweeping block capturing with the other hand; lit sweep-block-hook

nage (nah-gay): a throw of an opponent as in judo

naginata (nah-ghee-naw-tah): halberd; for three-hundred years the Japanese women’s traditional weapon

Naha (nah-ha): port city of Okinawa and major center of karate

naha te (nah-ha tay): style of karate founded by Higashionna Kanryo and practiced in the city of Naha, Okinawa; precursor to Goju Ryu

naka (nah-kah): inside as opposed to outside

nakadaka ippon ken (nah-ka-dah-ka ee-pone ken): fist with the middle knuckle extended

naka uke (nah-ka oo-kay): in block

namiashi (nah-me-ah-shi): a block, kick or sweep with the foot, done by raising the foot towards the groin; lit. wave foot

nanadan (naw-naw-dahn): seventh dan (shichidan)

naname (naw-naw-meh): diagonal

naore (nah-or-ray): a command in a tournament to return to the original position

nekoashi dachi (neh-ko-ah-she dah-chee): cat stance

neo dachi: gyaku zenkutsu dachi

ni: two

nidan (knee-dahn): second in a series, second degree black belt

nidan geri: flying double kicks

Nihon (knee-hone, rhyme with bone): Japan; also said Nippon (knee-pone)

Nihonjin (knee-hone-gee-n): a Japanese person

nihon nukite (knee-hone new-key-teh): two finger thrust

nikajo (knee-kah-joe): the second set of techniques in Daito Ryu

nikkyu (knee-key’uu): middle brown belt; 2nd kyu

Nippon (knee-pone; rhyme with bone): the proper name for Japan; lit. sun-source; the land of the rising sun

nukite (new-key-tay): finger-tip strike, spear hand (ippon, nihon, sambon, yonhon, gohon = the number of fingers straight during the strike)

nunchaku (noon-chaw-kuu): a weapon of two short sticks tied together by a flexible chain or rope (some call these nunchucks)

nyunanshin (new-nahn-she-n): a pliable spirit, lack of resistance to the lesson or teacher



obi (oh-be): the belt of the uniform

ohayo gozaimasu (oh-high-yo go-zah-ee-mah-su): “good morning”

Ohtsukare (oh-su-kar-eh): (Ohtsukare sama deshita): “Well done, good training everybody. I appreciate and recognize your efforts and thank you for all the positive energy and spirit you put in your training (tiredness well deserved and very healthy!). Good bye, and I am looking forward to seeing you again!”

oizuki (oitsuki): (oh-ee-zoo-key): jab or lunge punch (right hand when right foot forward):

oji (oh-gee): the defensive person or people in practice (see shikaki)

okuriashi (oh-koo-rhee-ah-she): a movement forward or backwards where the stance becomes longer then shorter

omedeto gozaimasu (oh-meh-deh-toe go-za-ee-ma-su): “congratulations!”

onegaishimasu: “I humbly request a lesson”; “Oss” is considered a contraction of this term

oni (oh-knee): a demon

osae (oh-saw-ee): press, push

osae uke: pressing block

o-sensei: a high ranking Sensei

oss: a peculiar karate term used to enliven spirit

“otagai ni, rei” (oh-tah-gah-ee knee ray): “Bow to each other”

otoshi (oh-toe-shee): a drop

otoshi empi uchi (oh-toe-she M-P oo-chee): descending elbow strike

otoshi shuto uchi: descending chop strike

oyasumi (oh-yah-sue-me): relax, rest

“oyasumi nasai” (nah-sah-ee): way of saying “good night”

oyayubi uchi (oh-yah-you-be): thumb strike



pakua (pah-qua): an internal style of Chinese martial arts; lit. eight trigrams

Passai/Patsai (paw-saw-ee or pot-saw-ee): old Okinawan name for the kata Bassai

peichin (pay-chee-n): an Okinawan honorific title bestowed on a samurai for distinguished service

Pinan (Pee-nahn): a kata meaning “peaceful, peaceful.”; Heian in Japanese

Pingan (ping-nhnn): old name for Pinan



randori (rahn-door-ee): free style practice in judo and jujutsu

rei (ray): a bow, a bend at the waist; respect

renoji dachi (ren-oh-ji dah-chee): an “L” shaped stance

renshi (rehn-shee): an honorific certificate given to high ranking Sensei

roku (row-koo): six

rokudan (row-koo-dahn): the sixth in a series; sixth degree black belt

rokkyu: high purple belt, 6th kyu

rokushakubo (row-koo-shaw-koo-bow): a six feet long fighting stick

ronin (roe-nin): a masterless samurai

ryu (rue): a style of an art, a method of teaching important lessons of an art

Ryukyu (rhee-uu-kyu): Okinawa; lit. “rope in the offing”

Ryukyu kempo: old name for Okinawan karate; kem = fist; po = way



sabaki (sah-bah-key): body shifting

sabi (sah-bee): simplicity; life without complexity

sagiashi dachi (sah-ghee-ah-she): crane stance

sai (saw-ee): an iron weapon about 18 inches long usually used in pairs

saifa (sah-ee-fah): a type of shugyo task of the saifa class (life, limb or honor dependent); lit. ultimate limit; one of the kata

saiha: a type of shugyo task of the saifa class (high importance)

saikai (sah-ee-kah-ee): a type of shugyo task of the saifa class (totally experiential)

sakura (sah-ku-rah): cherry tree, cherry blossom; symbol of the samurai life

samurai (sahmm-uhr-eye): lit. one who serves; a fierce warrior of feudal Japan

sanbon kumite (sah-nn-bone): three step sparring

sanbon zuki (zoo-key): triple punch

sanchin dachi (sah-n-chee-n): hourglass stance, triple pressure stance

sandan (sah-n-dah-n): third in a series; third degree black belt

sankajo (sah-n-kah-joe): the third technique of Daito Ryu

sankyu (sah-n-key-uu): low brown belt; 3rd kyu

san: three

satori (sah-tore-ee): a state of having life’s burdens lightened, enlightenment

sayonara (sah-yoh-nah-rah): “good bye”

seiken (say-ee-ken): fist

seiken tsuki (say-ee-ken tzoo-key): straight punch

seiretsu (say-rets): the lineup order; command to go to line up order

seiza (say-ee-zah): formal seated position sitting on your heels

semeriwaza (seh-mehr-ee-wa-zah): attacking techniques; old term for shikakiwaza

sempai (sem-pie): a person who has been training longer than you; older brother or older sister (see kohai)

sen no sen: before comes before, seizing the initiative just as an opponent thinks about attacking (also known as saki no saki)

sen: before; ability to block and counter; impenetrability in fighting

sensei (sen-say): teacher, doctor, professor; third license in the menkyo system

“sensei ni rei”: “bow to the teacher”

seppuku (sep-pu-ku): ritual suicide; hara kiri

shakuhachi (shaw-ku-hah-chee): a type of flute

shi (she): four (be careful also means pain, death)

shiai (she-eye): a contest, tournament

shiatsu (she-ot-tsu): a form of massage applying acupuncture principles

shibumi (she-boo-me): restrained elegance

shichi (she-chee): seven

shichidan (she-chee-dahn): the seventh in a series; seventh degree black belt

shichikyu (she-chee-key-uu): first purple belt; 7th kyu

shihan (she-han): mastership, completion; fifth license in the menkyo system

shiho: four corners or directions

shihonage: a Daito Ryu throw called “four corner throw”

shikaki (she-kaw-key): the offensive person or people in practice (see oji):

shikakiwaza: offensive techniques

shiko dachi (she-ko): straddle stance (knees deeply bent, feet slightly outward)

shime (she-may): a neck choke

shin (she-n): heart or mind; kokoro

shinai (she-nah-ee): a bamboo sword used in kendo

Shingon (she-n-go-n): an esoteric school of Buddhism

Shinto (she-n-toe): the native animistic religion of Japan

shiro (she-roe): white (noun)

shiroi (she-ro-ee): white (adjective)

shiro-naka (nah-kah): black belt with a white stripe on the inside

shiro-soto (soe-toe): black belt with a white stripe on the outside

Shito-ryu (she-toe rue): style of karate founded by Mabuni Kenwa

shizentai (she-zen-tah-ee): any of a number of natural non-offensive looking stances

shobu ippon (ee-pone): a one point contest

shobu (show-boo): an official contest

shodan (show-dahn): the first in a series; first degree black belt

shodan-ho: probationary black belt

Shogun (show-gune): the military dictator of ancient Japan

shomen (show-men): the front of the dojo

“shomen ni, rei”: “face the front and bow.”

Shorei Ryu (show-ray rue): another name for Naha-te a style which uses in-close fighting techniques and pronounced breathing

Shorin Ryu: a method of karate which includes Shuri te and Tomari te whose origins are more from Honan than Fukien province in China

Shorinji (show-rin-ji): Japanese pronunciation of Chinese word Shaolin (young forest temple); shorin = young forest; ji = temple

Shorinji Ryu (rue): style practiced by Sensei Richard Kim

Shoshin (show-she-n): beginner’s mind

Shotokan (show-toe-kahn): a Japanese style of karate originated by Funakoshi Gichen whose karate name was Shoto

Shugyo (shoe-ghee-yoh): severe training; the training of a samurai; the second license in the menkyo system

Shugyosha (shoe-ghee-yoh-shaw): severe trainee; see bushi, samurai

Shuri (shu-ri): the old capital of Okinawa

Shuri te: the type of karate that originated from around Shuri, Okinawa; see Shorin Ryu

Shuriken (shu-ri-ken): sharp bladed round or star shaped weapons used for throwing

shuto uchi (shoe-toe): chop strike, sword-hand strike

shuto uke: chop block

sochin dachi (sew-chee-n): a fighting stance little different from a front stance except that the back leg is bent

sokuto (so-koo-toe): the lateral side of the foot used in a side kick

soto (so-toe): outside as opposed to inside

soto hachiji dachi: toes out shoulder stance

soto uke: out block

sozosha (so-zoh-shaw): artist, creator; the fourth license in the menkyo system

sugi ashi (sue-ghee ah-she): see tsugi ashi

suki (sue-key): a gap in concentration; see kyoo

sutemi (sue-teh-me): sacrifice

sutemi waza (sue-teh-me wah-zah): sacrifice technique



Tanden (tahn-den): the center of the body; the center of gravity of the body; a point located in the middle of the lower abdomen just deep to where the karate belt knot ties

Te (deh): an old term for Okinawan karate

Tetsubo (teht-sue-bow): an iron training bo

Tettsui (teht-sue-ee): an iron fist strike, a bottom fist strike

Tewaza (teh-wah-zah): hand techniques (usually referring to judo throwing techniques but may be fist striking techniques also)

tobi geri (toe-bee): flying kicks (of various kinds; yoko, mae, nidan)

tode (toe-day): an older term for Okinawan karate meaning fighting hand of the Tang dynasty

tomaru (toe-mar-uu): a dangerous situation where you allow your mind to stop on something unimportant while you are trying to do something more important

tonfa (tone-faw): a wooden weapon usually used in pairs

tsugiashi (tzoo-ghee-ah-she): skipping forward or backwards

tsuki (tzoo-key): punch

tsuki uke: punch block

tsuki no kokoro: a mind like the moon; the moon shines its light on everything evenly without distortion

tuifa (too-ee-faw): a wooden weapon usually used in pairs (same as tonfa)



uchi (u-chee): strike, usually a round action strike

uchideshi (oo-chee deh-shee): in old days selected severe training students would live on the compound of their sensei. This type of severe training was called uchideshi as were those who undertook it.

uchi hachiji dachi: strong feeling shoulder stance (toes pointed inward)

uke (u-kay): blocking technique

ura (u-rah): back

ura empi uchi: backwards elbow strike

uraken: backfist technique (see hiraken)

ushiro (u-she-row): back

ushiro geri: back kick (see kagato geri)



Wabi (wah-bee): rusticity; the living of life remote from civilization, without all the societal props and conveniences we get so used to: cars, dishwashers, telephones, etc. that are non-essential to human life. See H.D. Thoreau as a proponent of wabi and sabi

Wazari (wah-zah-rhee): a half point given in a tournament for a fairly good technique (see ippon)

Wushu (woo-shoe): the Chinese term for martial arts



Yame (yah-meh): a command to stop what you are doing

yoko empi uchi: side elbow strike

yoko geri (yoh-ko): side kick (kekomi/keagi also applies to yoko geri)

yoi (yoh-ee): ready, prepared condition

yonkyu (yohn-key-uu): high green belt; 4th kyu

yudansha (you-dahn-shaw): a person who has earned a black belt (see mudansha)

yuka (you-kaw): floor

yuka geri: floor kicks



Zanshin (zahn-sheen): perfect finish, the complete physical and emotional overwhelming of an opponent

Zen Bei Butokukai (zen bay boo-toh-ku-kah-ee): the Greater American Military virtue Organization headed by Sensei Richard Kim

zenkutsu dachi (zen-koo-tzoo): front stance, bow-and-arrow stance


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